Progressive education is a vital instrument in predicting future growth and formulating a sound public policy. Modern national governance is facing several challenges, which are already generally changing traditional approaches to labour markets, university’s education and new digital economy’s applications. Besides, sustainability and circular economy issues form a new trend in education and training.
The European Commission supports the EU states in ensuring
that their education systems deliver. Recent analysis in EU’s annual
publication on education and training is an important part of this work.
Citizenship education is the main focus of the 2018 report, reflecting the role
of education in fostering engagement, inclusion and an understanding of
citizens’ rights. Using a range of examples, the Monitor finds that the EU
states are working to ensure that young people learn how our democracies and
institutions work and about the values the European Union is built on. The
2018-monitor also shows that the states have made further progress towards the
targets for reforming and modernising education systems the EU set itself for
2020 – reaching or getting very close to some of them.
The Commission’s policy in education, culture, youth and
sport has a supplementary competence to the member states’ policies. Though,
the Commission is closely watching the member states’ efforts in meeting the
European targets for 2020 agreed by the states, e.g. to enable young people to become engaged communities’ members. The
Commission given fresh impetus to this goal: in the beginning of 2018, the
states adopted a recommendation on promoting European shared values in
inclusive education and the European dimension of teaching. The EU institutions
mainly help stimulating investment and support policy priorities in
European-2018 Education and Training Monitor
The 2018 edition of the European Commission’s Education and
Training Monitor, finds that the EU states have made further progress towards
the EU’s targets set for 2020. The 2018 Monitor is the seventh edition of this
annual report that shows how the EU’s education and training systems are
evolving by bringing together a wide array of evidence. It measures the EU’s
progress in the “EU’s education and training-2020” targets. The analysis of
education challenges and trends recorded in the Monitor helps to inform the
treatment of education issues in the annual European Semester process.
Furthermore, it will help to identify where EU funding for education, training
and skills should be targeted in the EU’s next long-term budget.
The EU targets in: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/education-and-training/eu-benchmarks
The 2018-Education and Training Monitor shows the states’ progress
and differences among countries with the needed reforms, e.g. in basic skills,
where bigger efforts are required to ensure young people’s abilities to read,
write and do maths properly to become active and responsible citizens. Thus,
the share of pupils dropping out of school without a diploma fell to 10.6% in
2017, very close to the objective of less than 10% by 2020. This, nevertheless,
still means that more than one in ten pupils faces difficult prospects for
further education or for a solid entry into the labour market with fewer
opportunities available for adult learning.
The percentage of those completing tertiary education rose
to 39.9%, almost reaching the goal of 40% agreed on for 2020. And already more
than 95% of children aged four or older participated in early childhood
education and care, slightly more than the target of at least 95%.
The Monitor also looks at how much the EU states spend on
education, which is an important investment in economic and social development.
In 2016, public funding for education rose by 0.5% in real terms compared to
the previous year. However, many states are still investing less in education
than they did before the economic crisis, and thirteen EU states actually spent
less, including the Baltic States.
EU education policy for 2020
There are eight EU’s
benchmarks defined for the states’ policies facing 2020:
average of at least 15 % of adults should participate in lifelong
share of low-achieving 15-year-olds in reading, mathematics and science
should be less than 15 %.
share of 30-34 year-olds with tertiary educational attainment should be at
least 40 %.
share of early leavers from education and training should be less than 10
least 95 % of children between 4 years old and the age for starting
compulsory primary education should participate in early childhood
share of employed graduates (20-34 year-olds) having left education and
training 1-3 years before the reference year should be at least 82 %.
EU average of at least 20 % of higher education graduates should have had
a period of higher education-related study or training (including work
placements) abroad, representing a minimum of 15 ECTS credits or lasting a
minimum of three months.
EU average of at least 6 % of 18-34 year-olds with an initial vocational
education and training (IVET) qualification should have had an
IVET-related study or training period (including work placements) abroad
lasting a minimum of two weeks, or less if documented by Europass.
The Monitor analyses the main challenges for European
education systems and presents policies that can make them more responsive to
societal and labour market needs. The report comprises a cross-country
comparison, 28 in-depth country reports, and a webpage with additional data and
Education is high on the EU’s political agenda: the Commission
is working full speed with the states towards building a European education area
by 2025, which is about enhancing learning, cooperation and excellence. It is
also about opening up opportunities for all, strengthening values and enabling
young people to develop a European identity. The reforms encouraged by the EU-2018
education and training monitor underpins the strengthened ambition in this
area, with the Commission’s role in proposed measures to significantly boost
funding for young people and learning in the EU’s next long-term budget.
On European education area in: https://ec.europa.eu/education/education-in-the-eu/european-education-area_en
Future very hard to predict and makes it very difficult to
make public policy: present governments are in a difficult historic moment – unlike
any other in history – indicating the end of the “theoretical principle of the
infinite substitution of labour capital” with the arrival of robotics,
artificial intelligence (AI) and digitalisation. All these features are going
to transform traditional labour processes in factories and businesses, offices
and university’s research.
According to one scenario, the huge gearing up for ‘intelligent capitalism’ in
manufacturing and services promises the disappearance of labour as a factor of production;
that theory is advocating the skills and jobs’ disappearance, i.e. “joblessness”. Another
scenario (a “hybrid” one) argues that we can change the future and we should go
for augmented intelligence rather than autonomous learning systems. That will
provide a hybrid model with human beings firmly in control. Still, the third
scenario (a “normal” one) states that it is business as usual and that AI and
intelligent systems are just another tech-hype discourse that will erode, but
also create, new skills and jobs.
All three scenarios are based on models of change, but the first two recognise
that there is something at work that is different from old linear industrial
processes of scale and assembly.
If either the first or second scenarios are more likely to
be correct, the states are facing serious problems, in particular in the Baltic
States that during last three decades were building capital/labour duality:
parliamentary democracy representing some dominant political parties and new
mechanisms of “tripartite-negotiations” reflecting businesses, trade unions the
Thus, the 2018 OECD Automation Policy Brief confirms that
14% of jobs are automatable and another 32% will face substantial change in how
they are carried out; young people will find it harder to enter the labour
market and, while jobs in manufacturing and agriculture face greater risk of
automation, others are not immune to change. The greatest risk is to low-skill
routine jobs, although education and training will not offset the risks of
The ‘joblessness’ scenario is a frightening one, especially for young people
who will increasingly find growing competition for a decreasing pool of
available jobs with higher entry qualifications and conditions, and lower wages.
The future of work in this scenario looks bleak even if we admit that the
process is not one of the simple elimination of jobs through increasingly
sophisticated automation and the application of intelligent systems to the
world of work.
It is not clear what function education will serve in the
era of final automation once the vocational justification for it is removed.
Indeed, as a thought experiment it is useful to contemplate the question: what
is the purpose and function of higher education in the age of final automation
once labour as a set of processes and as a political category has disappeared?
In the book on comparative Baltic States’ policies*), there
is an accessible and balanced
analysis of the political development during the process of gaining
re-independence in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in August 1991. The author considers
regional political history while focusing on the different constitutional and
institutional choices made by Baltic leaders in the early 1990s.
Auers compares constitutions,
parliaments and executives as well as local governments, courts, bureaucracies
and domestic security services. He analyses political parties and electoral
systems, as well as the comparative civil society’s development, the impact of
corruption and politically latent ethnic tensions between Russophobe
communities in Estonia and Latvia.
The book also addresses
economic, social and welfare developments in the Baltic States in connection
with their common and crucial pursuit for external security.
*) See more in: Auers, Daniel. Comparative politics and government of the Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia
and Lithuania in the 21st century. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. –
For more information in the following web-links: the Erasmus+ programme;
Structural and Investment Funds, including the Youth Employment Initiative;
European Solidarity Corps, as
well as Horizon 2020,
and European Institute of Innovation and